Preparation of the car for checkup
This section is made to help on purpose to the owner of the car properly to be prepared to passing of technical inspection of a vehicle. Naturally, to make all checks on professional standards it is not obviously possible, however consecutive and full implementation described below procedures will allow the owner of the car to reveal defects and the deviations, capable to give to refusal in survey by the technical commission of traffic police.
At identification of knot or a component being on the verge of refusal the owner of the car leaves on the discretion the solution of a question on need of introduction of the corresponding correction. In a basis of such decision the general condition of the car is usually put. If the vehicle is represented to survey purely washed up and well well-groomed, checking can shut eyes to existence of insignificant deviations and wear of certain components close to border. At the same time, the technical inspector can always determine by a skilled eye the careless relation of the owner to the car and consider it as aggravating factor.
It is necessary to consider that provided to attention of the reader the list of checks and adjustments is full only at the moment of drawing up of the real Management. The norms accepted in later time and the requirement could not be considered by authors.
Let's notice also that full and high-quality implementation of many from listed below procedures will need the help of the assistant.
The full list of checks can be broken into some groups which will need to be entitled as follows conditionally:
1. The checks made
from a driver's place;
2. The checks which are carried out on the car standing on the earth;
3. The checks which are carried out on the car which wheels are torn off from the earth and are freely turned;
4. The analysis of composition of the fulfilled gases.
The checks made from a driver's place
• Check serviceability of functioning of the parking brake. The excessive course of a control lever (it is too much clicks) indicates need of performance of adjustment of a driving cable.
• Make sure that at an easy postukivaniye on a control lever there is no spontaneous otpuskaniye of the parking brake.
• Squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake against the stop and make sure that it does not continue to fail slowly to a floor. Otherwise it is necessary to check GTTs condition. Release a pedal, wait some seconds and again squeeze out it. If appreciable resistance to squeezing arises only when the pedal fell almost to a floor, it is necessary to make adjustment or repair of brakes. The soft course of a pedal of a brake speaks about air hit to the hydraulic highway. In this case the hydraulic system should be pumped over.
• Check serviceability of a condition and reliability of fastening of a brake pedal.
Also make sure of lack of smudges of liquid under a pedal on a rug or the floor panel. Availability of moisture under a pedal speaks about malfunction of GTTs.
• Check serviceability of functioning of the vacuum amplifier of brakes (at the corresponding complete set of the car) for what several times press on a brake pedal, then squeeze out it against the stop and start the engine. If the vacuum amplifier as it should be, a pedal after engine start considerably fails down, otherwise check a condition of a vacuum hose and actually the block of the vacuum amplifier.
Steering wheel and column
• Check a condition and durability of fastening of a nave, spokes and a rim of a steering wheel.
• Pull a steering wheel here and there and up-down. Existence appreciable люфта speaks about wear of components, or an otpuskaniya of a fixing nut. Continue to pull a steering wheel as earlier, at the same time slightly turning it to the right-to the left.
• Make sure of reliability of fastening of a steering wheel on a shaft of a column and in absence excessive люфта, indicating wear of persistent bearings or couplings of a steering column.
Windscreen and rear-view mirrors
• The windscreen should be free from cracks and the other damages, limiting to the driver review sector. Existence of only small cavities left by blows of rubble which have taken off from under wheels is admissible. Rear-view mirrors should be reliably fixed and free from cracks, regularly the mechanism of their adjustment besides should work.
Seats and seat belts
Listed below check treat both lobbies, and to back seat belts.
• Check fabric structure of a belt on lack of cuts, strong attritions and other damages. Examine belts on all their length, do not forget about back if they are provided. Check serviceability of operation of buckles of belts, - they should be clasped freely and not less freely be unbuttoned, providing thus reliable fixing in the latched condition. In case of application of belts of inertial type make sure of serviceability of functioning of the returnable mechanism. Check a condition of all anchor support of seat belts access to which is possible from car salon.
• Forward seats should be reliably fixed on a sled, and their backs - strongly to be fixed in vertical situation.
• Both forward doors should open and be closed freely both outside, and from within the car. Latches of locks should fix reliably doors in a closed position.
The checks which are carried out without a separation of wheels from the earth
Identification numbers and car signs
• Registration plates should be free from dirt and are legible. The distance between digital and warranty blocks (And) should be twice more than a distance between signs in blocks (In).
• Information stated on шильде by VIN (And) and a homological label (In) should be legible and legible.
• Include ignition and check serviceability of functioning of a horn.
• Check a condition of brushes of screen wipers, defective brushes replace.
• Check serviceability of operation of stekloomyvatel.
• Check serviceability of functioning of indexes of turns, marker lights and illumination of registration plate. Lenses and reflectors should be reliably fixed and free from dirt and damages.
• Check functioning of head headlights and correctness of adjustment of the direction of their optical axes. Reflectors should not be grown dull, existence of cracks on lenses is also inadmissible.
• Include ignition and check serviceability of functioning of indexes of turns (including control lamps on the dashboard) and the alarm system. Inclusion of lateral and back marker lights should not influence work of indexes of turns, otherwise it is necessary to check serviceability of grounding in the back combined lamp.
• Check serviceability of functioning of a back fog light (headlights) and its control lamp on the dashboard or in the switch.
• Examine GTTs, brake tubes and the block of the vacuum amplifier on existence of signs of leaks, weakening of fixture, traces of development of corrosion and mechanical damages.
• The GTTs tank should be reliably fixed, and liquid level to be in it between top (And) and bottom (In) marks in a wall.
• Check both lobbies flexible brake a hose on existence of cracks, signs of aging of a material and other damages. Turn a steering wheel from an emphasis against the stop and make sure that hoses do not make contact with components of a suspension bracket and a steering drive. Having firmly squeezed out a brake pedal, make sure that under pressure on hoses it is not formed swellings and there are no traces of leaks.
Suspension bracket and steering
• Ask the assistant to rotate a steering wheel here and there in a small range - till the beginning of reaction of operated wheels of the car. Estimate size of a free wheeling of a steering wheel. Excessive люфт points to wear or weakening of hinges of a steering column, the coupling of connection of a column with the steering mechanism or actually reechny transfer.
• Ask the assistant повращать a steering wheel more strongly in both directions - so that operated wheels started to turn. At this time try to estimate visually a condition of hinges, drafts and support of a steering drive. On cars with the power steering check reliability of fastening and a condition of the steering pump, its driving belt and connecting hydraulic hoses.
• Make sure of horizontal position of landing of the car and adequacy of a road gleam.
• Serially press to the earth each of car corners,
then sharply releasing them. The body should revert to the original state without raskachivaniye, otherwise it is necessary to check a condition of the corresponding shock-absorber attentively. Jamming of the shock-absorber can lead to more serious damages of components of a suspension bracket and a car body.
System of production of the fulfilled gases
• Start the engine. Ask the assistant to press to a cut of an exhaust pipe a lump of rags and check a system path on existence of signs of leakages of gases. Repair or replace defective sections.
• Check serviceability of a condition rubber подвесов support of sections of system.
The checks which are carried out on the car lifted over the earth
To Poddomkratta the car also establish it on props (at all do not get the last under components of a suspension bracket of the car). Make sure that wheels are torn completely off from the earth, and the steering wheel can turn in a full range (from an emphasis against the stop).
• Ask the assistant to turn a steering wheel from an emphasis against the stop. Make sure of smoothness of a course of components of a steering drive. No components, including wheels should adjoin to brake hoses, tubes or body elements thus.
• Check a condition of protective covers of a steering rack.
On models with the power steering examine hydraulic lines and their shtutserny connections on existence of signs of leaks. Make sure of absence of breakthroughs and jammings of components at operation of a steering drive. Check existence and serviceability шплинтов, lock tags and other details of blocking of fixture. Body panels should not be damaged or mentioned by corrosion in radius of 30 cm round points of fastening of components of a steering drive.
Forward and back suspension brackets and wheel bearings
• Begin with the right forward wheel. Grasp it in points on 3 both at 9 o'clock and sharply pull. Existence люфта speaks about wear or weakening of a pretightness of the wheel bearing, operation of spherical support and hinges, arms and rezinometallichesky plugs of fastening of components of a suspension bracket.
• Now grasp a wheel in points on 12 and at 6 o'clock and repeat the previous check.
Povrashchayte a wheel, checking its bearing on existence of breakthroughs and jamming points.
• At identification of signs of wear of basic knots of components of a suspension bracket check them by a podrychazhivaniye a screw-driver or flat mount. Existence appreciable люфта will indicate wear of the rezinometallichesky plug, a fixing bolt or actually a support arm (often boltovy openings gain ovality).
• Repeat everything listed above check for the remained wheels of the car.
Springs and shock-absorbers
• Examine suspension bracket racks (at the corresponding complete set) on existence of signs of serious leaks, developments of corrosion and mechanical damages of casings. Also check reliability of fastening of support of racks.
• If the car is equipped with screw springs, track, that they correctly took place in saddles, were not burst, deformed or damaged by corrosion.
• In case of a suspension bracket on sheet springs (springs) check serviceability of a condition of springs, reliability of fastening to them of the bridge, and also a condition of rezinometallichesky plugs of anchor support and earrings of springs.
• The same checks belong and to the cars equipped with other types of a suspension bracket, such as a suspension bracket on torsionny bars, hydraulic displeyser, etc. Check durability of fastening of all support and arms. Make sure of lack of signs of excessive wear, development of corrosion and mechanical damages. On suspension brackets of active type examine hydraulic tubes on existence of signs of leaks and damages.
• Check shock-absorbers on existence of traces of serious leaks. Estimate degree of wear of plugs of support, examine cases of shock-absorbers on existence of signs of mechanical damages.
Power shafts (only for front-wheel cars)
• Serially turn both lobbies of a wheel, checking a condition of protective covers of CV JOINTS of power shafts. Also check both power shafts on existence of signs of deformations and other damages.
• Whenever possible without assorting brake mechanisms, estimate degree of wear of blocks and check a condition of brake disks. Make sure that the material of frictional slips (And) is not worn-out over an admissible limit, and the brake disk (In) is free from cavities, chips, furrows and other mechanical damages.
• Check a condition of all rigid brake lines and flexible hoses in a back part of the car. Pay attention to corrosion traces, weakening of fastening of shtutserny connections, attritions, swellings (under pressure), cracks cuts and signs of aging of a material.
• Check on existence of signs of leaks supports and boards of brake mechanisms. Repair or replace defective components.
• Slowly rotating serially each of wheels, ask the assistant to squeeze out and release a pedal of a foot brake at this time. Make sure of serviceability of operation of brake mechanisms and that the wheel freely rotates at a pedal otpuskaniye.
• Check the mechanism of a drive of the parking brake on existence of breaks and damages of cables, traces of development of corrosion, wear and weakening of fixture of drafts, etc. Make sure that the parking brake reliably blocks the corresponding wheels of the car and completely releases them at a pedal otpuskaniye.
• To check efficiency of functioning of brake system without the special equipment it is not obviously possible, however it is necessary to make small trial runs of the car, checking serviceability of its braking without loss course stability.
Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
• Check a fuel tank condition (including a jellied mouth), fuel tubes, hoses and their shtutserny connections. All components should be reliably attached and free from damages and signs of leaks.
• On all length examine a path of system of release. Check sections and system components on existence of traces of leakages of the fulfilled gases, mechanical damages and signs of development of corrosion. Also check reliability of fastening of sections among themselves and in pendant support.
Wheels and tires
• Attentively examine lateral walls and protectors of tires of all wheels of the car, including the spare. Check tires on existence of cuts, swellings, exposures of a cord, traces of an otsloyeniye of a protector and its non-uniform wear. Make sure of correctness of landing of tires on rims of disks. Check a condition and correctness of landing of gates of a rating.
• Make sure that the wheels established on the car on a standard size correspond to a class and vehicle model (see. Specifications to Head Routine maintenance). On both wheels of each of axes of the car tires of one standard size should be established.
• Measure residual depth of a protector. The minimum admissible value makes 1.6 mm, at least on three quarters of the area of a protector. Non-uniform wear of a protector indicates violation of geometry of a forward suspension bracket.
• Check bearing elements of a body and a car frame (including box-shaped sections of the chassis, thresholds, cross-section beams, racks, and also reference points of components of a suspension bracket, a steering drive and brake mechanisms) on existence of traces of development of corrosion. Istoncheniye of bearing elements it is fraught with emergency creation on the road. In that case repair performance with involvement of experts is required.
• Try to clean all sharp закраины and the agnails which have appeared on body elements as a result of damage by their corrosion.
Check of a condition of the fulfilled gases
• Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and make sure of correctness of all its settings (as it should be there should be also all accompanying knots and systems: ignition system, air purifier etc.).
• Lift frequency of rotation of the engine to 2500 rpm and hold it on this value within about 20 seconds, then again dump turns to single and check an exhaust condition. If single turns are obviously excessively high, or the exhaust pipe within more than 5 seconds leaves well appreciable smoke of dark blue color, it is impossible to consider the car ready to checkup passing. The dark blue smoke on an exhaust is a sign of burning out of oil owing to internal wear of the engine whereas black testifies to incompleteness of combustion of fuel as a result of pollution of the air filter or other violations in a power supply system.
• By means of a gas analyzer level of the content in the fulfilled gases of monooxide of carbon (WITH) and hydrocarbonic connections can be defined. In case of need it is necessary to hire a gas analyzer.
Check of level of the content in the fulfilled gases of monooxide of carbon (WITH)
• At the moment of drawing up of the real Management admissible level of the contents WITH at single turns of the engine made 3.5 % for the cars which have arrived in operation since August of 1986 and 4.5 % for older cars. Since January, 1996 in Europe more strict norms for the cars, by the equipped catalytic converter and started to be maintained since August 1992 (about 0.5 %) were accepted. If to achieve hit of level of the contents WITH in norm it is not possible (under condition of correctness of settings of the engine, power supply systems, ignition etc.), the reason lies in excessive wear of the carburetor, or other refusal in a power supply system. It is not excluded also that the catalytic converter (in the presence of it in a complete set) simply failed.
Check of level of the content in the fulfilled gases of hydrocarbons
• At normal level WITH concentration of hydrocarbons in the fulfilled gases on single turns of the engine should not exceed 1200 particles on one million. At negative result of this check she should be repeated, having lifted engine turns to 2000 in a minute. If now level of the content of hydrocarbons falls below limiting value (1200 h/one million), it is possible to consider the car ready to checkup passing.
• The excessive content of hydrocarbons in the fulfilled gases of the car says about burning out of impellent oil, or that is more probable, about incompleteness of combustion of fuel.
• The unique check of a condition of the fulfilled gases of the diesel engine is measurement of intensity of an exhaust. For check it is necessary to lift sharply several times turns to the maximum admissible value for the unloaded engine.
For performance of this check extremely important that the gas-distributing belt was in good repair!
• Excessive intensity of the fulfilled gases in the elementary case can be caused by pollution of a filtering element of an air purifier, otherwise it is necessary to address for the help to specialists of car-care center.